Of course, a single page would not have been enough to write everything about each single ingredient or the myriad of studies done on them, however we have published an explanation on each ingredient, with the possibility of deepening some scientific research through the related bibliography.
Dihydrotestosterone belongs to the class of compounds called androgens, usually called androgenic hormones or testoids.
An excess of DHT implies the onset of prostatic hypertrophy, acne, seborrhea and hirsutism.
In the human body there are two isoforms of the 5-alpha reductase enzyme, encoded by two different chromosomes and with different sensitivity to regulatory factors, called 5-alpha reductase type I and 5-alpha reductase type II, respectively.
• Type I isoform is mainly concentrated in the skin, sebaceous glands, central nervous system and liver.
• Type II isoform is mainly expressed in the prostate and in the hair follicles.
DHT is one of the primary factors of baldness in males, as it binds to the hair bulb of the hair, atrophying it, but this is not always caused only by an excess of DHT, in fact, it has been scientifically proven even those who have levels of didrotestosterone in the norma can suffer from alopecia.
The cause of androgenetic alopecia, therefore, should not be sought in the amount of DHT produced, but in the higher level of 5 alpha reductase and androgen receptors present in areas subject to androgenetic alopecia. In genetically predisposed people, the presence of DHT activates a genetic process that leads to the miniaturization of the hair bulbs in certain areas of the scalp.
Scientific studies have shown that in the upper part of the head of people subject to baldness there are 30-40% more receptors in the media, thus explaining why the hair bulbs suffer more damage in those points of the head.
DHT plays an important role in the development or evolution of benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH, and prostate cancer, although the precise reason for this is still unknown.
Drugs belonging to the group known as 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors are used for problems due to DHT.
This group includes finasteride and dutasteride.
In order not to incur the side effects of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor drugs, it is possible to use alternative natural treatments with functions similar to Finasteride, but without the same side effects.
This small palm produces dark red berries, single-seeded and similar in size to olives, which are its drug.
Several researches have been carried out on fruit extracts which show that Serenoa repens is very rich in active ingredients such as triglycerides, phytosterols, sitosterol derivatives, flavonoids that give it antiandrogenic properties, which it performs mainly through a direct action on dihydrotestosterone receptors (DHT ), ed indirectly, through the inhibition of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, which is why it is widely used in the treatment of androgenic alopecia.
In 2012, a research was published in the International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology entitled "Comparative efficacy and Finasteride Vs Serenoa Repens in male androgenetic alopecia": a two-year study, The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of Serenoa repens in the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia (AGA), by comparing it with finasteride.
For this purpose, 100 male patients with clinically diagnosed mild to moderate AGA were enrolled.
One group received Serenoa repens 320 mg every day for 24 months, while the other received finasteride 1 mg every day for the same period.
To evaluate the efficacy of the treatments, a score index was used based on the comparison of the global photos taken at the beginning (T0) and at the end (T24) of the treatment.
The results showed that 38% of the patients treated with Serenoa repens had an increase in hair growth, while 68% of those treated with finasteride noticed an improvement.
This is why Serenoa repens, despite being among the most used anti dht plants, alone is not enough to defeat male androgenetic alopecia.
There is no sexual interference, on tests carried out on 2939 patients, 5% of patients treated with finasteride reported having had side effects, of patients treated with placebo 0.7%, while of patients treated with serenoa about 1%, practically comparable to placebo.
It has been shown that, unlike synthetic inhibitors such as finasteride, it induces its effects without interfering with the cellular ability to secrete psa and therefore without the side effects and related it.
Pygeum africanum is an evergreen tree whose beneficial properties were already known to African indigenous peoples.
The active ingredients that are extracted from the bark are fatty acids, sterols such as betasitosterol, triterpenes and two alcohols, ticosanol and decosanol.
The results of 18 clinical studies published in the American Journal of Medicine show that the extract of Pygeum africanum determines an antiandrogenic action similar to that of Serenoa repens in fact among its components there is betasitosterin which partially inhibits the responsible 5 alpha reductase synthesizing testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a hormone that attacks hair follicles and causes hair loss.
Moreover, by acting on 5 alpha lipoxygenase, the pentacyclic triterpenes are responsible for a decrease in leukotrienes (chemical mediators of inflammation in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis).
It is an excellent ally in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia as pygeum africanum, in addition to acting by inhibiting the 5-alpha-reductase enzyme, reduces inflammation and irritation of the scalp.
The pygeum africanum extract is generally well tolerated. Very few cases have been reported of side effects such as headache and gastrointestinal disturbances of negligible and transient severity, such as nausea, diarrhea and gastralgia.
American Journal of Medicine
Nettle is a herbaceous plant that has always been known for its purifying and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been used since ancient times as a remedy against hair loss, thanks to its active ingredients useful for combating baldness. The whole plant is used from the nettle. The leaves are rich in sterols, glycoproteins, flavonoids, tannins and a good amount of calcium and potassium, inside them there are pockets full of a liquid, made stinging by the presence of different toxins, which is freed with rubbing .
In the roots, on the other hand, there are many antioxidant substances, such as lignans and tannins, as well as a particular compound, beta-sitosterol, and it is this phytosterol that is the main active ingredient capable of fighting androgenetic alopecia, in fact among its properties there is also that of being an inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase, the enzyme that promotes the biosynthesis of Dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
Thanks to the presence of mineral salts, such as calcium and potassium, nettle also boasts a strengthening and remineralizing action.
In addition, it also has beneficial effects on dandruff and oily hair.
In recent years, scientific research has focused its attention on metabolites produced by plants, in particular on secondary metabolites produced in the presence of stressors that force the plant to activate specific defense mechanisms.
In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that ajuga reptans extract has a wide variety of biological activities despite its main feature being that of acting as an anti-inflammatory.
It is also able to modulate the activities of testosterone by acting primarily on the 5 alpha-reductase enzyme, especially in juvenile acne and in the prevention of hair loss in androgenetic alopecia.
Ajuga reptans has therapeutic properties also in benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), gastro-intestinal disorders and diseases (Crohn's syndrome), microcirculatory diseases.
It was recently discovered, but the values obtained in the studies have shown its extraordinary effectiveness, it could even replace the serenoa.
Cosmet Technol. 2009, 12 (1) 19-23.
Green tea (Camelia sinensis) belongs to the Theaceae family. Well known for its antioxidant action, it is useful for counteracting cellular aging.
The young leaves of green tea contain the highest percentage of antioxidant principles found in nature, useful for counteracting the formation of free radicals, responsible for cellular aging.
The polyphenols present are anti-radicals, more powerful even than vitamins C and E.
Green tea is a popular drink around the world and its potential beneficial effects such as anti-cancer and antioxidant properties are believed to be mediated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an important constituent of polyphenols.
Recently, it has been reported that EGCG may be useful in the prevention or treatment of androgenetic alopecia by selectively inhibiting 5alpha-reductase activity and reducing DHT.
This study was undertaken to measure the effect of EGCG on hair growth in vitro and to investigate its effect on human dermal papillae (DPC) cells in vivo and in vitro.
EGCG promoted hair growth in ex vivo cultured hair follicles and proliferation of cultured DPCs. In vitro stimulation of DPC growth by EGCG can be mediated through upregulation of phosphorylated Erk and Akt and an increase in the Bcl-2 / Bax ratio.
Similar results were also obtained in the in vivo dermal papillae of the human scalp.
Therefore, EGCG is claimed to stimulate human hair growth through these dual proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on DPCs.
Green tea is an excellent aid in hair loss as it stimulates blood circulation and regeneration of the scalp and has an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action.
L-Cysteine is a sulfur compound precursor in keratinization, an important process for the formation of hair, skin and nails.
It is a non-essential amino acid that can be synthesized by the body, starting from L-methionine and L-serine. It is important as a precursor of glutathione, a tripeptide with antioxidant, detoxifying and immunomodulatory properties.
It is one of the 20 ordinary amino acids that make up the proteins of our body. It is not an essential amino acid in fact it can derive from serine or methionine, since this has been transformed into cystathionine.
Two molecules of cysteine form cystine, an essential amino acid for keratinization present in large quantities in the outer layer of the hair.
A diet lacking or poor in cysteine seems to lead to a net decrease in hair production.
Scientific studies have shown that soy isoflavones nourish and support a healthy and more normally balanced state of the androgen sex hormone in the body.
And they provide powerful antioxidant protection to help prevent oxidative stress-induced aging of the hair follicle.
It has been discovered that a little-known molecule, Equol, created in the intestine when soy is digested, is a powerful natural inhibitor of a male hormone involved in prostate cancer and baldness. Equol completely stops the action of DHT, which normally stimulates the growth of the prostate and causes the typical male pattern baldness. Its anti-dht effect makes it a natural element useful in the therapy against androgenetic baldness.
Betasitosterol belongs to the family of plant sterols or phytosterols, natural compounds found in plants, fruit and vegetables. It is a natural compound that acts on 5-alpha-reductase, the enzyme involved in the appearance and transformation of testosterone into Dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
Betasitosterol limits the bioavailability of cholesterol and therefore the synthesis of testosterone, a substrate of 5-alpha reductase, in the prostate and in the hair follicle.
With a chemical structure similar to that of cholesterol, phytosterols have the property of limiting their absorption in the intestine. This results in a reduction in blood cholesterol levels, contributing to the prevention of coronary heart disease.
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is characterized by the structural miniaturization of androgen-sensitive hair follicles in predisposed individuals and is anatomically defined within a given scalp model. Biochemically, a contributing factor to this disorder is the conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) via the 5-alpha reductase (5AR) enzyme.
A double-blind study aimed at testing botanically derived 5AR inhibitors, in particular betasitosterol, in the treatment of AGA, highlighted a highly positive response to treatment.
In this study, healthy males between the ages of 23 and 64 were included with mild to moderate AGA.
The Blinded Investigation Staff Assessment Report showed that 60% of (6/10) study subjects treated with the active study formulation were assessed as improved at the final visit.
Betasitosterol owes its success to its use as an alternative to pharmacological treatments of androgenetic alopecia.
It has the advantage of being well tolerated by the body, apart from some gastro-intestinal disorders that can sometimes occur.
The grape or Vitis vinifera is a plant belonging to the Vinaceae family, native to the Mediterranean basin and the Middle East.
The extract is obtained from the peel of the fruit and from the seeds called grape seeds and contains active ingredients such as tannins, anthocyanins, resveratrol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, mineral salts and vitamins.
The proanthocyanidins (OPC), present in the seeds, are polyphenols consisting of flavonic molecules grouped in oligomers with a high antioxidant activity against free radicals and endothelioprotective and are used in phytocosmetics as skin protectors from damage caused by UV rays as they are able to the enzymes involved in the degradation of collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid.
Recent studies on this extract have shown cardioprotective activity as well as efficacy in relieving the symptoms of venous insufficiency, such as heaviness in the legs, cramps, edema, pain and itching.
It has been scientifically observed that these substances selectively induce the growth of keratinocytes, which make up the hair and skin, suggesting their effectiveness in the treatment of alopecia. The extract of the seeds titrated in 95% proanthocyanidins appears to have greater functionality in the treatment of alopecia.
In the treatment against baldness, therefore, grape seeds offer benefits to the foliage both for the effects produced by proanthocyanidins and for the presence of resveratrol capable of inhibiting abnormal angiogenesis.
In fact, it has been shown that angiogenesis is the basis of hair growth and its abnormalities cause hair loss.
Lycopene is a natural substance present in some foods of plant origin, in particular in tomatoes. It belongs to the group of carotenoids, a set of yellow-violet pigments widespread in nature.
It is considered the main precursor of vitamin A and has a very high antioxidant activity which makes it useful against free radicals, a small group of molecules or ions believed to be responsible for most degenerative diseases.
In recent years, a lot of research has taken place that has led scholars to attribute to lycopene a role of primary importance for our body.
The antioxidant activity of lycopene has a specific protective effect against prostate diseases and is associated with a reduction of some cancers.
In case of prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays, lycopene exerts a protective action on the skin, removing the risk of photodamage.
Regular intake of lycopene decreases the incidence of cardiovascular disease, reducing the risk of atherosclerosis and heart attacks.
Thanks to its antioxidant properties, lycopene protects the body from neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.
Lycopene, thanks to its ability to inhibit 5-alpha-reductase-1 expressed in the testicles and prostate, reduces the production of DHT, preventing certain diseases related to the prostate and occlusion of the hair bulbs that cause alopecia.
Recent studies have shown that lycopene extracts promote hair growth and suggest that their use can be used in hair loss treatments without skin irritation in moderate doses and without any observable edema or erythema.
Astaxanthin is a molecule naturally present in some green algae, capable of giving crustaceans such as lobster, shrimp or salmon and trout their typical purple red color and is mainly extracted from the Haematococcus Pluvialis seaweed.
It is a carotenoid and is part of the xanthophyll class.
This carotenoid is known mainly for its antioxidant activity, able to protect cells from free radicals in a very high way, but also for its action on the immune system, able to strengthen it and improve its functioning.
The particular structure of Astaxanthin makes it much more effective than Beta-Carotene or Vitamin E. It is in fact highly lipo-water-soluble, has a very rapid pharmacokinetics and is one of the few molecules able to cross the blood brain and blood-retinal barrier. , thus also reaching the nervous system and eyes.
Many preclinical studies have confirmed that astaxanthin has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, is an adjuvant for memory and useful in improving human fertility through the reduction of ROS in seminal fluid and an increase in the mobility of spermatozoa.
Recent studies have shown how low astaxanthin levels inhibit 5alpha-reductase and reduce the growth of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and how astaxanthin added to saw palmetto shows greater inhibition of 5alpha-reductase by enhancing it.
The ability of astaxanthin to inhibit the 5-alpha-reductase enzyme responsible for converting Testosterone into Dihydrotestosterone in addition to saw palmetto, proves to be useful in the treatment of hair loss.
Phyllanthus belongs to the euphorbiacee family.
A recent Japanese study highlighted the particular anti-hair loss properties of Phyllanthus extract.
Scholars have found that Phyllanthus extract has a remarkable inhibition activity of 5-alpha-Reductase, the enzyme that promotes the biosynthesis of Dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
In vitro and in vivo studies have shown very satisfactory results. In both cases, the effectiveness was superior to other natural formulations, such as those based on Serenoa Repens or Pumpkin seed oil.
Apparently the active ingredient responsible for this antiandrogenic effect is the stigmasterol glucoside, a compound in which this plant is remarkably rich and thanks to which it is able to inhibit about 50% of DHT with a dosage of 27.2 microM.
It is possible to state that the Fillanthus extract has a similar action to Finasteride but that at the indicated dosages it has been shown to have no significant adverse effects.
Furthermore, the epilobium extract is an excellent natural antioxidant capable of effectively counteracting free radicals and cellular aging.
Pumpkin seeds have long been recognized as a precious source of elements with high anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
A recent scientific study, however, has evaluated the effects of taking pumpkin seeds on 5-alpha-Reductase due to DHT which binds with receptors in the follicle and favors the production of sebum, thus causing alopecia androgenetic.
The substances contained such as zinc, iron, omega-3, magnesium, B vitamins, phytosterols, carotenoids, fatty acids, flavonoids, and polysaccharides make pumpkin seeds a rich nutritional resource with excellent ability to counteract hair loss and that, when combined with other natural herbs with anti-DHT action, it increases its benefits.
It has also been shown that pumpkin seeds are useful in counteracting the side effects due to the decrease in DHT.
Kopyrrol (Pyrrolidino Diamino Pyrimidine Oxide) is a molecule used to combat hair loss, approved for cosmetic use, has a mechanism of action similar to Minoxidil (which is instead a real drug) and which, unlike the latter showed no side effects.
Kopyrrol through the bloodstream acts at the level of the hair root and increases the volume of the hair in the growth phase.
In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that Kopyrrol, through the opening of potassium channels, allows the transition from the telogen to the anagen phase of the capillary cycle and maintains the anagen phase for a long period of time.
By dilating the blood vessels, it increases the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the hair roots and therefore to the follicles.
By increasing the proliferation of the cells of the bulb matrix, it strengthens the hair from root to tip and allows a strong retention of the hair root inside the bulb.
Kopyrrol is considered safe and effective for both women and men.